Volume 3/ Rash Behari Bose

The Pan-Asiatic Conference

1926, Aug. 1-3 (Taishō 15)

The Pan-Asiatic Conference was held in Nagasaki. They chose Japanese, Chinese and English for communication, but they preferred to use Japanese and Chinese in order to keep their discussion relatively more confidential from European colonizers.

長崎ホテル 1898

Nagasaki Hotel (1898)

Photos of Meiji Era

Buildings on Nagasaki Beach in 1900s


Nagasaki Beach in 1900s

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Speech by Rash Behari Bose, Indian Representative

In the olden days, Asian civilization was not inferior to other civilizations, neither in terms of spiritual nor material aspects. India was one of the top three most advanced nations, both spiritually and materialistically. In particular, India is to this very day one of the most advanced in the field of philosophy.

Western public claims that the animal rights organisations that have been established in Japan over the past few years were established following the West. This is a big mistake. Animal rights organizations did  not start in the West, but they existed since around the 4th century in India. We even had animal hospitals and cared for all kinds of creatures. India was such an advanced nation, yet since the Industrial Revolution, India has regressed both materialistically and spiritually as a result of excess emphasis on industrialization. In order for Asia to recover from such a weakened state, we must regain our strength. We must become strong and establish a new Asian culture. In order to do this, we Asians must unite. This is not only for the salvation of the Asian people, but for the human race at large.

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A news paper article on Aug 1, 1926, highlighting Rash Behari Bose’s speech at Pan-Asiatic Conference in Nagasaki.

Osaka Asahi Shinbun, 1926.8.1 (Taisho 15)

Indian Independence Day was Decided on as January 26

Indian provisional government flag

The Flag of Free India



Shikkoku no Indo (1929) by Rash Behari Bose.

India Independence day January 26

It was in Lahore that the Congress asked for ‘purna swaraj,’ deciding on the last Sunday of January 1930 – which happened to be January 26 – as Independence Day.

Has Lahore forgotten why January 26 was chosen as India’s Republic Day?

salt march 2

The Salt March, also called Dandi March or Salt Satyagraha, was a major nonviolent protest action in India led by Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi in March–April 1930.

The Eleven Demands of Gandhi Made to Lord Irwin:

(1) Prohibit intoxicants, liquor
(2) Change the exchange ratio between the rupee and the sterling
(3) Reduce the rate of land revenue
(4) Abolish the salt tax
(5) Reduce military expenditures
(6) Reduce expenditures on civil administration
(7) Impose custom duty on foreign cloth
(8) Accept the Postal Reservation Bill
(9) Abolish the CID Department
(10) Release all political prisoners
(11) Issue licenses of arms to citizens for self-protection.


Indian workers on strike in support of Gandhi.

Gandhi-Irwin Pact


The ‘Gandhi-Irwin Pact’ was a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin, the then Viceroy of India, on 5 March 1931 before the second Round Table Conference in London. Before this, Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, had announced in October 1929 a vague offer of ‘dominion status’ for British India in an unspecified future and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution.



Office workers commuting to Marubiru, Tokyo (1929)


Tokyo in 1931


Elevated Railways in Tokyo (1931)

羽田空港 1931年完成

Haneda Airport (1931)

1931年 日本橋

Nihonbashi (1931)

Scenery of Tokyo (1930-1935)


Japan-Manchiria Ferry, Gassan-Maru (1940)



Kokushikan was a private school established in 1917 by Shibata Tokujirō, in Tokyo, Japan. It became Kokushikan University in 1958.

At the time of its foundation, Kokushikan’s main purpose was to educate youth with the principles and philosophy upheld by Genyōsha. Notable people who were instrumental in Kokushikan’s establishment were Tōyama Mitsuru, Noda Utarō, Shibusawa Eiichi, and Tokutomi Sohō,


Tōyama Mitsuru, Noda Utarō, Shibusawa Eiichi, Tokutomi Sohō. (front row from left to right). The back row on the right is Shibata Tokujirō.

Rash Behari Bose, who was supported and guided by Tōyama Mitsuru, taught English and Indian affairs at Kokushikan.

Radio was actively used during the war


Nanaora Tube Radio (1941) It was used for the National Policy during war time. Similar to the one that Rash Behari Bose used.


Inside the Tube Radio

Gallery of Tube Radios

Simon Commission and The Death of Lala Lajpat Rai

simon commission

At the time of introducing the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms in 1919, the British Government declared that a commission would be sent to India after ten years to examine the effects and operations of the constitutional reforms and to suggest more reforms for India. In November 1927, the British government appointed the Simon Commission to report on India’s constitutional progress for introducing constitutional reforms, as promised.

Lala Lajpat Rai

The Indian political parties boycotted the Simon Commission. The superintendent of police, James A. Scott, ordered the police to lathi charge (baton charge) the protesters, and personally assaulted Lala Lajpat Rai. He died on 17 November 1928.


Shina Jihen (1937.7.7 – 1941.12.8)

Shina Jihen was the war between Japan and China that broke out without formal declaration).

Its name was changed by the US after 1945, and now the West and China call it the Second Sino-Japanese War, fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.


Shina Jihen poster card



Subhas Chandra Bose fled and lived in Germany (1941-1943). He sought assistance from Nazis in his effort for Indian independence, but was kept in limbo.


Japanese Declaration of War on the United States and the British Empire


We hereby declare War on the United States of America and the British Empire. The men and officers of Our Army and Navy shall do their utmost in prosecuting the war. Our public servants of various departments shall perform faithfully and diligently their respective duties; the entire nation with a united will shall mobilize their total strength so that nothing will miscarry in the attainment of Our war aims.

To ensure the stability of East Asia and to contribute to world peace is the far-sighted policy which was formulated by Our Great Illustrious Imperial Grandsire [Emperor Meiji] and Our Great Imperial Sire succeeding Him [Emperor Taishō], and which We lay constantly to heart. To cultivate friendship among nations and to enjoy prosperity in common with all nations, has always been the guiding principle of Our Empire’s foreign policy. It has been truly unavoidable and far from Our wishes that Our Empire has been brought to cross swords with America and Britain. More than four years have passed since China, failing to comprehend the true intentions of Our Empire, and recklessly courting trouble, disturbed the peace of East Asia and compelled Our Empire to take up arms. Although there has been reestablished the National Government of China, with which Japan had effected neighborly intercourse and cooperation, the regime which has survived in Chungking, relying upon American and British protection, still continues its fratricidal opposition. Eager for the realization of their inordinate ambition to dominate the Orient, both America and Britain, giving support to the Chungking regime, have aggravated the disturbances in East Asia. Moreover these two Powers, inducing other countries to follow suit, increased military preparations on all sides of Our Empire to challenge Us. They have obstructed by every means Our peaceful commerce and finally resorted to a direct severance of economic relations, menacing gravely the existence of Our Empire. Patiently have We waited and long have We endured, in the hope that Our government might retrieve the situation in peace. But Our adversaries, showing not the least spirit of conciliation, have unduly delayed a settlement; and in the meantime they have intensified the economic and political pressure to compel thereby Our Empire to submission. This trend of affairs, would, if left unchecked, not only nullify Our Empire’s efforts of many years for the sake of the stabilization of East Asia, but also endanger the very existence of Our nation. The situation being such as it is, Our Empire, for its existence and self-defense has no other recourse but to appeal to arms and to crush every obstacle in its path.

The hallowed spirits of Our Imperial Ancestors guarding Us from above, We rely upon the loyalty and courage of Our subjects in Our confident expectation that the task bequeathed by Our forefathers will be carried forward and that the sources of evil will be speedily eradicated and an enduring peace immutably established in East Asia, preserving thereby the glory of Our Empire.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set Our hand and caused the Grand Seal of the Empire to be affixed at the Imperial Palace, Tokyo, this seventh day of the 12th month of the 15th year of Shōwa, corresponding to the 2,602nd year from the accession to the throne of Emperor Jimmu.

(Released by the Board of Information, December 8, 1941. Japan Times & Advertiser)

Japan’s Deceleration of War Broadcast to Japanese Public

At 12PM noon and 7PM on Dec 8, 1941, Japan time. (5 pm Dec 7, and 0 am Dec 8, Hawaii time)


HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse underway with a destroyer on 10 December

HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse underway with a destroyer on 10 December 1941


Japanese Imperial Army Superior private, 25th Army; Malaysia January 1942.
On 6 November 1941, Yamashita Tomoyuki was put in command of the 25th Army. On 8 December, he launched an invasion of Malaya, from bases in French Indochina. In the campaign, which concluded with the fall of Singapore on 15 February 1942, Yamashita’s 30,000 front-line soldiers captured 130,000 British, Indian, and Australian troops, the largest surrender of British-led personnel in history. He became known as the “Tiger of Malaya”.
The bicycle troops became his Blitzkrieg, who took 54 days to conquer all Malaysia.


Singapore surrender


Swami Satyananda Puri   (Bhavabhushan Mitra)

Giani Pritam Singh Dhillon

Giani Pritam Singh Dhillon


Fujiwara Iwaichi

Mohan Singh

Mohan Singh shaking hands with Fujiwara

Malaisian Tamil construction workers

Tamil Construction Workers in Malaya

INA propaganda6

INA propaganda to persuade British Indian soldiers to work for Indian independence.

Stock Photo – India: Indian Independence League propaganda leaflet – ‘A Warning and an Advice’. Such leaflets were dropped by Japanese aircraft and otherwise surreptitiously circulated, c.1941-44

GBP-CPA007956 - © - Pictures From History



Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh

singapore surrender discussion

Singapore Surrender Signing

Singapore surrender

After Singapore’s surrender. British soldiers and Japanese soldiers relax together. Japanese treated their “prisoners” as their guests. The Japanese view was that soldiers fight for a cause, so there is no personal hatred. Once the soldiers are captured, they are free to befriend each other.

Shanghai occupation

Japanese occupied Shanghai international settlement

Shanghai Gurdwara

Shanghai’s Sikh Gurdwara, or temple.

Sikhs in Shanghai


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Tojo Hideki announced Indian Independence League and declared Japan’s unconditional support for Indian independence


Marshal Sugiyama Hajime 


Iwakuro Hideo of Hikari Kikan