The Pan-Asiatic Conference
1926, Aug. 1-3 (Taishō 15)
The Pan-Asiatic Conference was held in Nagasaki. They chose Japanese, Chinese and English for communication, but they preferred to use Japanese and Chinese in order to keep their discussion relatively more confidential from European colonizers.
Speech by Rash Behari Bose, Indian Representative
In the olden days, Asian civilization was not inferior to other civilizations, neither in terms of spiritual nor material aspects. India was one of the top three most advanced nations, both spiritually and materialistically. In particular, India is to this very day one of the most advanced in the field of philosophy.
Western public claims that the animal rights organisations that have been established in Japan over the past few years were established following the West. This is a big mistake. Animal rights organizations did not start in the West, but they existed since around the 4th century in India. We even had animal hospitals and cared for all kinds of creatures. India was such an advanced nation, yet since the Industrial Revolution, India has regressed both materialistically and spiritually as a result of excess emphasis on industrialization. In order for Asia to recover from such a weakened state, we must regain our strength. We must become strong and establish a new Asian culture. In order to do this, we Asians must unite. This is not only for the salvation of the Asian people, but for the human race at large.
Indian Independence Day was Decided on as January 26
The Eleven Demands of Gandhi Made to Lord Irwin:
(1) Prohibit intoxicants, liquor
(2) Change the exchange ratio between the rupee and the sterling
(3) Reduce the rate of land revenue
(4) Abolish the salt tax
(5) Reduce military expenditures
(6) Reduce expenditures on civil administration
(7) Impose custom duty on foreign cloth
(8) Accept the Postal Reservation Bill
(9) Abolish the CID Department
(10) Release all political prisoners
(11) Issue licenses of arms to citizens for self-protection.
Tokyo in 1931
Kokushikan was a private school established in 1917 by Shibata Tokujirō, in Tokyo, Japan. It became Kokushikan University in 1958.
At the time of its foundation, Kokushikan’s main purpose was to educate youth with the principles and philosophy upheld by Genyōsha. Notable people who were instrumental in Kokushikan’s establishment were Tōyama Mitsuru, Noda Utarō, Shibusawa Eiichi, and Tokutomi Sohō,
Rash Behari Bose, who was supported and guided by Tōyama Mitsuru, taught English and Indian affairs at Kokushikan.
Radio was actively used during the war
Simon Commission and The Death of Lala Lajpat Rai
Shina Jihen (1937.7.7 – 1941.12.8)
Shina Jihen was the war between Japan and China that broke out without formal declaration).
Its name was changed by the US after 1945, and now the West and China call it the Second Sino-Japanese War, fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Japanese Declaration of War on the United States and the British Empire
We hereby declare War on the United States of America and the British Empire. The men and officers of Our Army and Navy shall do their utmost in prosecuting the war. Our public servants of various departments shall perform faithfully and diligently their respective duties; the entire nation with a united will shall mobilize their total strength so that nothing will miscarry in the attainment of Our war aims.
To ensure the stability of East Asia and to contribute to world peace is the far-sighted policy which was formulated by Our Great Illustrious Imperial Grandsire [Emperor Meiji] and Our Great Imperial Sire succeeding Him [Emperor Taishō], and which We lay constantly to heart. To cultivate friendship among nations and to enjoy prosperity in common with all nations, has always been the guiding principle of Our Empire’s foreign policy. It has been truly unavoidable and far from Our wishes that Our Empire has been brought to cross swords with America and Britain. More than four years have passed since China, failing to comprehend the true intentions of Our Empire, and recklessly courting trouble, disturbed the peace of East Asia and compelled Our Empire to take up arms. Although there has been reestablished the National Government of China, with which Japan had effected neighborly intercourse and cooperation, the regime which has survived in Chungking, relying upon American and British protection, still continues its fratricidal opposition. Eager for the realization of their inordinate ambition to dominate the Orient, both America and Britain, giving support to the Chungking regime, have aggravated the disturbances in East Asia. Moreover these two Powers, inducing other countries to follow suit, increased military preparations on all sides of Our Empire to challenge Us. They have obstructed by every means Our peaceful commerce and finally resorted to a direct severance of economic relations, menacing gravely the existence of Our Empire. Patiently have We waited and long have We endured, in the hope that Our government might retrieve the situation in peace. But Our adversaries, showing not the least spirit of conciliation, have unduly delayed a settlement; and in the meantime they have intensified the economic and political pressure to compel thereby Our Empire to submission. This trend of affairs, would, if left unchecked, not only nullify Our Empire’s efforts of many years for the sake of the stabilization of East Asia, but also endanger the very existence of Our nation. The situation being such as it is, Our Empire, for its existence and self-defense has no other recourse but to appeal to arms and to crush every obstacle in its path.
The hallowed spirits of Our Imperial Ancestors guarding Us from above, We rely upon the loyalty and courage of Our subjects in Our confident expectation that the task bequeathed by Our forefathers will be carried forward and that the sources of evil will be speedily eradicated and an enduring peace immutably established in East Asia, preserving thereby the glory of Our Empire.
In witness whereof, we have hereunto set Our hand and caused the Grand Seal of the Empire to be affixed at the Imperial Palace, Tokyo, this seventh day of the 12th month of the 15th year of Shōwa, corresponding to the 2,602nd year from the accession to the throne of Emperor Jimmu.
(Released by the Board of Information, December 8, 1941. Japan Times & Advertiser)
Japan’s Deceleration of War Broadcast to Japanese Public
At 12PM noon and 7PM on Dec 8, 1941, Japan time. (5 pm Dec 7, and 0 am Dec 8, Hawaii time)